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必修1 Unit 5 Nelson Mandela—a modern hero 知识梳理

2013-07-17 14:07:31
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●重点单词
1quality n.质量;品质;性质
2active adj.积极的;活跃的→actively adv.积极地→activity n.活动
3devote vt.(to连用)献身;专心于→devoted adj.忠实的,深爱的→devotion n.奉献
4found vt.建立;建设
5principle n.法则;原则;原理
6peaceful adj.和平的;平静的;安宁的→peace n.和平
7legal adj.法律的;依照法律的→illegal(反义词)
8hopeful adj.怀有希望的;有希望的→hopeless(反义词)hope n. & v.希望
9youth n.青年;青年时期
10vote vt. & vi.投票;选举 n.投票;选票;表决
11attack vt.进攻;攻击;抨击
12violence n.暴力;暴行→violent adj.猛烈的,凶暴的
13equal adj.相等的,平等的→equally adv.相等地→equality n.同等,平等
14willing adj.乐意的;自愿的
15escape vi.逃脱;逃走;泄露
16educate vt.教育;训练→educated adj.受过教育的;有教养的→education n.教育
17beg vi. & vt.请求;乞求
18relative n.亲戚;亲属→relation n.关系→relationship n.关系
19terror n.恐怖;可怕的人;恐怖时期;恐怖活动→terrorism n.恐怖主义→terrorist n.恐怖分子
20reward n.报酬;奖金 vt.酬劳;奖赏
21opinion n.意见;看法;主张
●重点短语
1out of work 失业
2as a matter of fact 事实上
3in trouble 在危险/受罚/痛苦处境中
4turn to 求助于;致力于
5lose heart 丧失信心
6come to power 当权;上台
7set up 设立;建立
8be sentenced to 被判处……(徒刑)
9worry about 担心
10be put into prison 被关进监狱
11blow up 使充气;爆炸
12fight against 对……而战
13go against the law 违反法律
14be willing to do sth. 乐于干……
15be active in sth. 积极从事……
●重点句型
1The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.过去30年来所出现的大量法律剥夺了我们的权利,阻挡了我们的进步,一直到今天,我们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。
2...only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. ……直到那时我们才决定以暴还暴。
3I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. 第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我的心情很不好。
互动探究·能力备考
.词汇短语过关
1quality n. 质量;品质;性质,特征
quantity n. 数量
be of good/bad quality /坏的品质
be of high/poor quality /劣质
extra fine quality 特等
firstrate quality 一等
2devote vt. ( to 连用)献身;专心于
devoted adj. 热爱的;忠诚的
devoteoneself    time one's life money    energytosth.    把……用在,
doing sth.  把……献给
sb. be devoted to 专心致志于;忠于;很喜欢
a devoted friend 一位忠实的朋友
3vote vt. & vi.投票,选举 n.投票;选票;表决
vote for投票赞成
vote against投票反对
vote on投票表决
vote...down投票击败,投票否决
vote through投票通过
put...to the vote付诸表决,裁决
提示:vote for表示投票赞同 vote against表示投票反对,类似结构还有be for/against; fight for/against
4equal vt. 等于;抵得上adj. 相等的;胜任的
n. 同等/相等的人或物
equality n. 平等
A equals B in...A……方面比得上B
be equal ton./doing sth. 等于;与……相等;有……的能力
(勇气、力量等);胜任,能干
be without equal/have no equal 无与伦比
 
5escape vi. 逃脱;逃走vt. 避免;免除
n.逃跑;逸出;出口
escape from ……逃脱,逃走
escapen./doing sth. 避免()某事
a narrow/near escape死里逃生
fire escape太平梯,安全梯;安全出口
 
 
6reward n. 报酬;奖金;vt. 酬劳,奖赏
rewarding adj. 报答的,有益的,值得的
as a reward for 作为(对某事的)报酬/奖赏
in reward of 为酬谢……;作为奖励
reward sb. for sth./doing sth. ()某事而报答某人
reward sb. with sth. 用某物奖赏某人
7out of work 失业
out of business 破产;歇业
out of control 失控
out of repair 失修
out of order 有毛病
out of date 过时
out of one's reach 够不着
out of danger 脱险
out of question 毫无疑问
out of the question 不可能的
out of patience 失去耐心
out of temper 发脾气
out of mind 心不在焉
8in trouble 处在困难/麻烦中(表状态)
get (sb.) into/out of trouble
使(某人)陷入/摆脱困境(表动作)
ask/look for trouble 找麻烦
make trouble 闹事;捣乱
have trouble in doing sth. 做某事有麻烦
take the trouble to do sth. 不辞辛苦地做某事
put sb. to the trouble of doing sth.
麻烦某人做某事
9lose heart (be discouraged) 气馁;灰心;泄气
lose one's heart to sth.
(devote oneself to sth.) 把身心投入到……
lose one's heart to sb. (fall in love with sb.)喜欢……
拓展:put one's heart into 把全部心思放在……
have sth. in one's heart ……放在心上
have one's heart in sth. 对某事有兴趣
set one's heart on/upon sth. 渴望/热衷于某事 
learn...by heart 记住;背诵
take heart 振作精神,鼓起勇气
10turn to求助于;致力于
turn away拒绝,不准某人入内
turn around转身
turn down拒绝;调小
turn in上交
turn off关掉
turn on打开
turn out赶出;证明是,结果是
turn over翻身,翻转
turn up露面,出现;开大
11set up 设立;建立
拓展:set about 开始做,着手
set aside 使分离;留出;拔出;不理会
set back 推迟,阻碍
set down 记下;写下;规定
set off 引起爆炸;动身出发;引起
set out 动身出发;开始;陈述;陈列
.重点句型详解
1...only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.……只有到那时我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。
only 修饰的时间、条件和方式状语,为了强调而提到句首时,句子要用部分倒装形式,把原句中的情态动词、系动词或助动词提到主语前面。only 如修饰从句而提到句首,主句要部分倒装。
Only at that time did he realize that he had made a mistake.
直到那时他才意识到自己犯的错误。
Only by practising a few hours every day will you be able to master English.
只有通过每天练习几个小时你才能掌握英语。
Only with all your time and energy can you do the job well.
只有用上你全部的时间和精力你才能把这项工作做好。
Only when I came back was I informed of the news.
直到我回来,我才被通知这个消息。
Only if I get a job will I have enough money to go to college.我只有找到了工作才有足够的钱上大学。
提示:(1)在部分倒装句中,如果谓语部分无助动词,则须找助动词来帮助它构成倒装句。如:
×Only after the war learned he the sad news.
Only after the war did he learn the sad news.
(2)only 修饰状语从句时,从句不可倒装。如:
×Only when did he return did we find out the truth.
Only when he returned did we find out the truth.
(3)only修饰主语时,句子不可倒装。如:
×Only can he answer the question.
Only he can answer the question.
 
2I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. 第一次给旅行团作讲解时,我的感觉很不好。
the first time 相当于连词,引导一个状语从句,意为第一次。这类特殊短语还有:
(1)each time, every time, next time, last time, any time 等也可以做连词用,表示无论何时”“每当”“每次等,引导一个时间状语从句。
Every time we come to Beijing, we go to visit the Forbidden City. 每次我们去北京,我们都去参观故宫。
I didn'    t have any penny last time I saw you.
上次我看见你时,我身无分文。
(2)immediately, directly, instantly 可活用为连词,引导时间状语从句,表示…………”,相当于 as soon as
The young man rushed out of the hall immediately he heard the sound.那个年轻人一听到声响就冲出了大厅。
(3)the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 等名词短语也可用做连词,也相当于 as soon as,表示…………”
The moment Professor Wang appeared on the platform, the audience all stood up and clapped warmly.
王教授一出现在讲台上,听众就站起来热烈鼓掌。
(4)the morning/afternoon/evening, the night, the day, the week, the year, the spring/summer/autumn/winter 等一些表示时间段的名词短语也可以引导时间状语从句。
The morning Mr Smith was walking along the lake, he met an old friend.
那天早晨史密斯先生在湖边散步时遇到了一位老朋友。
 
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