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必修1 Unit 4 Earthquakes 知识梳理

2013-07-17 14:07:23
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●重点单词
1burst vi.爆裂;爆发 n.突然破裂,爆发
2event n事件大事
3nation n民族国家国民national adj.国家的民族的nationality n国籍
4ruin n废墟毁灭 vt.毁灭使破产
5suffering n苦难痛苦suffer v受苦遭受
6extreme adj.极度的extremely adv.
7injure vt.损害伤害injured adj.受伤的injury n伤害损害
8destroy vt.破坏毁坏消灭
9useless adj.无用的无效的无益的useful(反义词)use v. & n使用利用
10shock vt. & vi.(使)震惊;震动 n.休克;打击;震惊
11rescue n. & vt.援救;营救
12trap vt.使陷入困境 n.陷阱;困境
13electricity n.电;电流;电学→electric adj.用电的;带电的;发电的→electrical adj.与电有关的;电学的
14disaster n.灾难;灾祸
15bury vt.埋葬;掩埋;隐藏
16shelter n.掩蔽;掩蔽处;避身处
17damage n. & vt.损失;损害
18frighten vt.使惊吓;吓唬→frightened adj.受惊的;受恐吓的→frightening adj.令人恐惧的
19judge n.裁判员;法官 vt.断定;判断;判决→judgement n.判断,判决
20express vt.表示;表达n.快车;速递→expression n.表达→expressive adj.有表现力的
●重点短语
1right away立刻
2at an end 结束
3in ruins 成为废墟
4dig out 掘出;发现
5a(great) number of 许多;大量的
6give out 分发;发出(气味、热等)
 
7thousands of 成千上万
8think little of 不重视;不假思索
9blow away 吹走;刮走
10be proud of 以……而自豪
11instead of 代替
12be trapped in 陷入……之中
13be known for/as 因为/作为……出名
14bring in 引进;引来
 
 
●重点句型
1In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. 在农家院子里,鸡和猪都烦躁不安,以致不吃食。
2It seemed as if the world was at an end! 世界似乎到了末日!
3All hope was not lost. 不是所有的希望都破灭了。
互动探究·能力备考
.词汇短语过关
1burst vi. (burst, burst) 爆裂;爆发
n. 突然破裂;爆发
burst out 迸发;突然发作;突然……起来
burst into 闯入;突然出现;突然……起来;突然发作
burst into tears/songs/laughter/angry speech
突然哭///吵起来
burst out crying/singing/laughing
突然哭起来/唱起来/笑起来
burst in 闯入
burst with anger/grief/joy 勃然大怒/心痛欲绝/乐不可支
be bursting to do 渴望,急着要做(某事)
at a(one) burst 一阵;一口气;一举;一下
a burst of anger 怒火的迸发
2ruin n. [U]毁坏;毁灭,崩溃[C](pl.) 废墟,遗迹
v. (使)破产,(使)堕落,毁灭
in ruins 成为废墟;破败不堪
be the ruin of 成为……毁灭(堕落)的原因
come/fall to ruin 毁灭,灭亡;崩溃;破坏掉
bring sb. to ruin 使某人失败;使倾家荡产
bring ruin upon oneself 自取灭亡
ruin oneself 自取灭亡
ruin one's health/fame 毁坏某人的健康/名誉
3injure vt. 损害,伤害
injury n. 伤,伤口;伤害
injured adj. 受伤的,受委屈的
do an injury to sb.伤害某人
the injured伤员
an injured look/expression委屈的样子/表情
injured pride/feelings受到伤害的自尊/情感
4shock n. [UC]打击;震惊;震动;休克
vt. 使震惊,使惊愕
be shocked at/by (doing) sth. 被震惊
be shocked to do sth. 惧怕做某事
It shocked sb. to see/hear...
看见/听到……使某人震惊。
(be) a shock to sb. 对某人来说是个打击
提示:shocked adj. 感到惊奇的,惊讶的(主语多为人)
shocking adj. 令人气愤的,令人惊讶的(主语多为物)
5bury vt. 埋葬;掩埋;隐藏
bury oneself in study 埋头研究
bury oneself in (doing) sth. 专心致力于()某事
be buried in thoughts 沉思
bury one's face in one's hands 双手掩面
be buried alive 被活埋;隐居
6judge v. 断定;判断;判决
n. 裁判员;法官;评判员
judgement n. 判断,审判,意见,判断力
judging by/from ……上看,根据……判断
judge sb./sth. from/by... ……来判断
judge between right and wrong 判断是非
as far as I can judge 据我判断,我认为
in one's judgement 依某人看来,按某人的看法
7right away立刻,马上
(1)表示立刻,马上的短语
without delay/right now/immediately/at once/in no time
/right off
(2)比较right away/right now
right away立刻,马上,相当于at once, in no time
right now立即,马上;此时此刻,后一意义比now
的语气强,相当于at this very moment
8at an end 终止;结束
bring...to an end (使)结束,终止
come to an end 结束,终止
at the end of ……尽头()
by the end of ……末为止(常与完成时态连用)
in the end 最后,终于(后不加 of短语)
on end 一连,连续
to the end 到底
without end 没完没了
make ends meet 收支相抵
9a (great) number of 许多;大量的
a large/great/good number of
a great/good many
a good few
quite a few+可数名词复数
many a more than one+单数可数名词+单数谓语动词
a great/good deal of
a great/large amount of
quite a little+不可数名词
a lot/lots of
a great/large quantity of
large quantities of
plenty of+可数名词复数
或不可数名词
提示:(1)a number of许多,大量的意思,后接可数名词复数,谓语动词用复数。
the number of “……的数目的意思,谓语动词用单数。
(2)large quantities of (pl.)/[U]做主语,谓语动词用复数。
large amounts of[U] n.做主语,谓语动词用复数。
.重点句型详解
1It seemed as if the world was at an end!
世界似乎到了末日!
It seems (to sb.) that... (对某人来说)似乎……
Sb. seems to do/to be doing/to have done...
It seems as if/though... “似乎(好像)……”,可接虚拟语气。
seem(to be)n./adj. 似乎是……
There seems to be... 好像有……
It seems so. (So it seems.) 似乎是那样。
It seemed that he had known the truth.He seemed to have known the truth. 他好像知道了真相。
His father seems (to be) strict.
他父亲似乎很严厉。
There seemed to be a voice in the distance.
似乎远处有人说话。
It always seemed as though everything in my childhood had just happened.我童年的一切仿佛刚刚发生一样。
辨析:seem/look/appear
(1)seem 暗含有一定的根据,往往是接近实际的判断,后可接介词、形容词、不定式或从句。
(2)look 着重由视觉而得出的印象,可与 like连用,但不能与不定式连用。可接 as if从句,不接 that从句。
(3)appear 强调外表给人的印象,而且事实往往并非如此。可接 that从句,不接 as if从句。
2In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. 在农家院子里,鸡和猪都烦躁不安,以致不吃食。
too...to... 句型表示“太……以至于不能……(表否定)”,可转化为 not...enough to... so...that...
The child is too young to dress himself.
The child is not old enough to dress himself.
The child is so young that he can't dress himself.
这孩子太小,不能够自己穿衣。
提示:(1) too后接 easy, ready, happy, willing, eager anxious时,to 后的动词表示肯定。例如:
The book is too easy to understand.
这本书太容易理解了。
He was too anxious to leave.
他急于离开。
(2)too...not to... 句式表示肯定意思。例如:
He is too careful not to have noticed it.
他那么细心,不会不注意到这一点的。
(3)too...to... too前面用了否定词( never)时,表示肯定。例如:
It is never too late to mend.
改过不嫌晚。
(4)only too...to...表示肯定,其中 too后的形容词多数是表示某种心情的,如 glad, pleased, willing, thankful, delighted, determined 等,也有描绘性的形容词,如 good, kind, true等。例如:
The girl is only too kind to help us.
这姑娘非常乐于帮助我们。
3All hope was not lost.不是所有的希望都破灭了。
此句为部分否定。all, both, each, every, everybody, everything, complete, completely, always, all the time, whole, wholly, entirely, altogether 等代词、形容词和副词与否定词 not连用,构成部分否定,表示“不都、并非都”的意思。
All that glitters is not gold.
发光的并不一定都是金子。
Both of the brothers don't like the film.
兄弟俩不都喜欢这部电影。
Not everything went well with him.
他并非每件事情都顺利。
Not all of the rich are happy.
不是所有有钱人都幸福。
The rich are not always happy.
有钱人并非总是幸福。
You can't fool all the people all the time.
你未必总是能愚弄所有的人。
拓展:全部否定用:no one, none, neither, nobody, nothing,以及 not...any/either来表示。
None of them are right. 他们都不对。
Neither of us will go. 我们俩都不去。
Nobody can win me. 没人能赢我。
        自我完善·误区备考
1. ruin/destroy/damage
(1)ruin n. & vt. 表示破坏严重,强调渐渐毁坏了,多指不属于人为因素毁坏某事物,而是自然现象或客观原因改变。有(使)破产,(使)毁灭等意思。
(2)destroy vt. 指彻底毁坏,以致不能修复,常作破坏,毁灭解,还有打破(希望、计划)之意。
(3)damage n&v. 表示使事物在价值、效用、外观等方面受到毁坏、损害,即部分受损,程度比 destroy 轻。
2. injure/wound/hurt/harm
injure 一般指由于意外或事故而造成伤害,也可以表示损害名誉、伤害感情等。
wound 指枪伤、刀伤、刺伤等皮肉之伤,是出血的、严重的伤,特指战场上受伤。
hurt 是一般用语,指肉体或精神上的伤害,常伴有强烈的疼痛感;还可表示疼、痛
harm 用于肉体或精神上的伤害均可。有时可指引起不安或不便。还可用于抽象事物,尤其是指不道德的事情。
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