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必修1 Unit 3 Travel journal 知识梳理

2013-07-17 14:07:51
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●重点单词
1journal n.日记;杂志;定期刊物→journalist n.记者
2transport n. & vt.运输;运送→transportation n.交通工具
3prefer vt.更喜欢;选择某事物(而不选择其他事物)preferable adj.较适合的;更可取的→preference n.偏爱;爱好;喜爱
4disadvantage n.不利条件;不便之处→advantage(反义词)
5persuade vt.说服;劝说→persuasion n.劝服→persuasive adj.劝说的;有说服力的
6graduate vi.毕业n.大学毕业生→graduation n.毕业
7finally adv.最后;终于
8schedule n.时间表;进度表 vt.为某事安排时间
9stubborn adj.顽固的;固执的
10organize vt.组织;成立→organized adj.有组织的→organization n.组织
11determine vt.决定;确定;下定决心→determined adj.坚决的;有决心的→determination n.决心
12journey n.旅行;旅程
13bend n.弯;拐角 vt. (bent, bent)使弯曲vi.弯身;弯腰
14attitude n.态度;看法
15forecast n. & vt.预测;预报
16reliable adj.可信赖的;可靠的
17view n.风景;视野;观点;见解 vt.观看;注视;考虑
18beneath prep.在……下面
●重点短语
1ever since从那以后
2be fond of 喜欢
3care about 关心;担心
4change ones mind 改变主意
5make up ones mind 下定决心
6give in(to) 投降;屈服
7as usual 通常;照常
8at midnight 在午夜
9dream about doing 梦想干某事
10graduate from 从……毕业
11at an altitude of 在……高度
12put up a tent  搭起帐篷
13for one thing...for another 一方面,……另一方面
14cant/can hardly wait to do sth. 迫不及待地干某事
●重点句型
1Ever since middle school, my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip.从高中起,我姐姐王薇和我就一直梦想作一次伟大的自行车旅行。
2It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. 首先想到要沿湄公河从源头到终点骑车旅行的是我的姐姐。
3When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold, she said it would be an interesting experience.当我告诉她那里空气稀薄,呼吸困难而且天气很冷时,她却说这将是一次有趣的经历。
4Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it.她一旦下定决心,什么也不能使她改变。
5A determined person always tries to finish the job, no matter how hard it is.
有决心的人总是努力完成工作的,而不管它有多难。
 
互动探究·能力备考
.词汇短语过关
1transport n. & vt. 运送;运输
transport sb./sth. to...……运到……
means of transport交通工具
public transport公共交通
2prefer vt. 更喜欢
preference n. 偏爱
prefer sth. 更喜欢某事物
prefer to do /doing sth. 更喜欢做某事
prefer (doing) sth. to (doing) sth.
prefer to do sth. rather than do sth.
宁愿做……而不做……/相比……更喜欢做……
prefer sb. to do sth. 宁愿某人做某事
prefer that sb. (should) do sth.
提示:1.prefer 更喜欢的意思,即 like better, 因此 prefer 不能再与 better, more 等比较级词语连用。
2prefer 的过去式、过去分词、现在分词要双写字母r,然后加-ed或-ing
3persuade vt. 劝说;说服
persuasion n. 说服;信服;信念
persuasive adj. 有说服力的;令人信服的
persuade sb. to do sth.persuade sb. into doing sth.
说服某人做某事
persuade sb. not to do sth.persuade sb. out of doing sth.
说服某人不做某事
try to persuade sb. to do sth.advise sb. to do sth.
尽力劝说某人做某事(但未必劝服)
persuade sb. of sth. 使某人相信……
persuade sb.that 从句 使某人相信……
比较:persuade/advise
(1)advise 表示劝告的动作,不看结果,而 persuade 强调已经说服 advise 可接动词的-ing 形式做宾语,也可接 that 引导的宾语从句(必须用虚拟语气 should+动词原形),而 persuade 不能。
(2)persuade 还有使人相信的意思,搭配 persuade sb. of sth. that 从句,而 advise 无此用法。
4determine vt.&vi. 决定;确定;(使)下定决心
determined adj. 坚决的;有决心的
determination n. 决心
determinen./pron. ()定某事
determine on/upon... 决定……
determine to do sth. 决定做某事(表示动作,非延续性
动词短语)
be determined to do sth. 决心做某事(表示状态,可与
表示时间段的状语连用)
determine sb. to do sth. 使某人下决心做某事
determine that/be determined that... 决心/定做某事
5care about 关心,在乎
care about 关心,在乎,在意(多用于疑问或否定句)
care for 喜欢或喜好某人/(多用于否定或疑问句)
照顾;照看
take care of (look after) 照顾
take care 当心;小心
with care 小心地
medical care 医疗服务
6change one's mind 改变主意
make up one's mind 下定决心
call/bring sth. to mind 回忆起某事
lose one's mind 发疯
have a/no mind to do sth. /无意做某事
fix/keep one's mind upon/on ... 把注意力放在……
bear/keep... in mind 记住……
have...on one's mind 为某人操心/焦虑
have...in mind 打算;考虑
提示:在 change one's mind make up one's mind 短语中 mind 均为可数名词,有单复数形式变化。
7give in 屈服;投降;让步;上交
give in to sb. 对某人让步
give away 赠送;泄漏;出卖
give back 归还
give off 放出;散发出(液体、气体、气味、热量、能量、光、声音)
give out 分发;用完;消耗尽,筋疲力尽
give up 放弃,戒掉;停止;认输;把……送交
give over 移交
give way to ……让路;屈服;被……征服
提示:give in上交讲时,是及物动词短语,代词做宾语时,要放在 give in之间,如:give them in;作让步;投降讲时,是不及物动词短语,后面接介词 to,如: give in to sb./sth.
.重点句型详解
1Ever since middle school, my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip. 从高中起,我姐姐王薇和我就一直梦想作一次伟大的自行车旅行。
ever since “从那以后”,句子要与现在完成时或现在完成进行时连用,类似的时间状语还有 so far, up till now, by now, recently, lately, since last month, in/for the past 一段时间,since...ago等。
He came to England three years ago and has lived here ever since.
他三年前来到英国,从那以后便一直住在这里。
I haven't seen her since ten years ago.
自十年前至今,我没见过她。
We have completed half of the work so far.
到目前为止,我们完成了一半的工作。
He hasn't written to me recently.
他最近没给我写信。
The couple have been working very hard for/in the past (last) ten years.在最近的十年里这对夫妇一直努力工作。
拓展:It is/was/has been+时间段+since...自从……已经多久了。
It will be/was+时间段+before...再有多长时间才……
It is/was+时间段+since...句型中,若 since从句中的动词为延续性动词,句子意思要发生变化。
It is three years since he joined the army. 他参军3年了。
It is three years since he smoked.他戒烟3年了(不吸烟)
2When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold, she said it would be an interesting experience.当我告诉她那里空气稀薄,呼吸困难而且天气很冷时,她却说这将是一次有趣的经历。
beadj.to do主语+系动词+形容词+不定式结构中,不定式与主语在意义上是动宾关系,但要用主动形式表被动意义;如果不定式的动词是不及物的,要在不定式后边加介词。用于这种句式中的形容词常为:easy, difficult, heavy, hard, nice, bitter, dangerous, interesting, important, comfortable, pleasant, impossible 等。
The question is easy to answer.这问题容易回答。
That book is difficult to understand.那本书难懂。
The water in that river is not fit to drink.
那条河中的水不宜饮用。
Harry Potter is pleasant to read.
《哈利·波特》读起来让人感到愉快。
He is easy to get along with.他很容易相处。
 
 
拓展:此句式还可以拓展为 find/feel/think/believe+宾语+adj.to do。例如:
I find English tongue twisters pleasant to learn.
我觉得英语绕口令学起来很有意思。
3Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it.
她一旦下了决心,什么也不能使她改变。
once+状语从句意为一旦…………”
once引导的状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。
Once you remember it, you'll never forget it.
一旦你记住它,你就永远不会忘记它。
Once you have promised, you must do it.
一旦你许下诺言,你就必须履行。
拓展:once 用做副词,可表示:
(1)(for) one time 一次
I have only been here once. 我只来过这儿一次。
(2)at some time in the past 一度,曾经
He once lived in Zambia. 他曾经(一度)住在赞比亚。
(3)all at oncesuddenly 突然
All at once the door opened. 突然门开了。
4A determined person always tries to finish the job, no matter how hard it is.
一个意志坚定的人总是努力完成工作,不管它多么困难。
no matter ,作不管”“无论解,同 what/who/when/where/how 等疑问词连用,引导让步状语从句。
No matter what he says, I won't believe him.
不管他说什么,我都不会相信他。
No matter when you come, you are welcome.
无论你什么时候来都受欢迎。
No matter whose bag this is, it must be kept here for the present. 不管这是谁的包,暂时必须放在这里。
No matter who knocks, don't open the door.
不管谁敲门,都不要开门。
提示:(1)no matter what/who/when/how/where 可以换成 whatever/whoever/whenever/however/wherever 引导让步状语从句。
(2)whatever, whicheverwhoever, whomever 还可以引导名词性从句。 Whoever breaks the law should be punished. 任何违犯了法律的人都应受到惩罚。
(3)however 是副词,修饰形容词、副词+主+谓; whatever 是代词,修饰的是名词。如:
However difficult it is, you must work it out.
不管有多难,你都要解决这件事。
Whatever difficulty there is, we must work together.
不管有什么样的困难我们都要团结合作。
        自我完善·误区备考
1. fare/fee/charge/cost/price/expense
(1)fare 指交通费用。
(2)fee 指给律师、医生等的费用或(考试)报名费,入会费等。
(3)charge (可数或不可数)费用,索价;记账,赊账。
(4)cost (可数或不可数)代价,价格,费用;(常复数)成本。
(5)price 价格,价钱。
(6)expense 支出,开支,费用;(常复数)经费,支出金额;(薪水外的)津贴。
2. finally/at last/ in the end
(1)finally 常用来表示顺序,引出最后一项内容,一般不带有感情色彩。
(2)at last 暗含等候或耽误很长时间之后才……”,带有浓厚的感情色彩,如不耐烦、不顺心、不如意等,而且语气很强烈。
(3)in the end 表示经过许多变化、困难和捉摸不定的情况之后某事才发生,可以用来预示将来。
3. view/scene/scenery/sight
(1)view常指在远处或高处从某个角度看到的 scenery 的一部分,还有观点,看法的意思。
(2)scene 普通名词,指一眼可浏览的风景,不限于自然景色,也可指现场”“场景
(3)scenery 集合名词,指某地方的整个风景,是由多个 scene构成的景色。
(4)sight 风景,名胜。用复数形式指人文景观。
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