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谈谈高三英语词汇的归类总复习

2013-05-25 21:05:09
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纵观历届高考,从单项选择、完形填空、短文改错、单词拼写乃至阅读理解 的考查无一不是对词汇的考查 。到了高三,仅仅英语一科就有厚厚九本书(新 版教材),两千多单词,数不清的习语搭配和同义词,加上复 杂的语法、语音, 的确使英语复习显得很难而又"漫无边际"。怎样才能花较少的时间取得较大的 复习效果呢 ?下面笔者就多年来从事高三教学所得的点滴体会,参照历届高考 词汇考查频繁的内容,从语法、习语、辨析 和拼写等四方面将语音、词汇、语 法和拼写融为一体,谈谈英语词汇的归类总复习。
一、从用法上复习归纳词汇,过语法关
英语词汇大多具有本身词义外,还有其语法功能,我们在复习时就不要把着 眼点单纯放在单词记忆上,而 要从它们的语法功能上去把握它们。如在复习动 词时我们就要根据它们变化形式多、搭配活跃等特点,从它们 的用法上进行分 类记忆。这样,既可记住词汇,又可攻克语法难关。
1.宾语不同,意义也不同
英语中有些动词可同时后接不定式和动名词作宾语,但意义不同。它们是高 考试题的考查重点。这类词主 要有:
go on doing(继续干同一件事) go on to do(接着去干另一件事) stop doing sth.(停止正在干的事) stop to do sth.(停下来去干某事) regret doing(后悔干了某事) regret to do(相当于be sorry to do) forget/remember doing(忘记/记得已做过的事) forget/rem-ember to do (忘记/记得要干的事) mean doing(意味着干…) mean to do(想干…) try doing(尝试做) try to do(设法做)
2.都可接宾语和宾补,形式却不同
某些动词如forbid, advise, allow, permit, admit, consider等直接接动词 作宾语时要用动名词,但接宾补时 ,宾补要用不定式。如:
We forbid smoking here.(宾语) We forbid you to smoke here.(宾补) You are forbidden to smoke here.(主补)They would not allow him_________across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking going ──────── C. for risk to go D. risk going
3.宾语不同、语态不同,意义却相同
有些词如need, require, want, deserve等后可接不定式(要用被动形式), 可接动名词(要用主动形式表被 动意义),可与worth, worthy一并记忆。两种 形式意义相同。如:
The room requires to be cleaned/cleaning. This sentence needs______________. A.an improvement B.improve  C.improving  D.improved ──────
4.只接不定式作宾语的词和词组
只接不定式作宾语的词和词组有:
decide,expect,refuse,wish,hope,order,promise,pretend,offer,hap pen,seem,make up one's mind,used,be about,be able,have等。如: She pretended____________me when I passed by. A.not to see B.not seeing ────── C.to not see D.having not seen
5.只接动名词作宾语的词和词组 只接动名词作宾语的词和词组:
Mind,risk, avoid,enjoy,excape,keep,suggest,appreciate,practise,de lay, finish, feel like, look forward to, can't help, keep(on), miss, be used to, excuse, be worth, imagine ,put off, give up等。如: I would appreciate_________back this afternoon. A.you to call B.you call C.your calling D.you are calling ───────The squirrel was lucky that it just missed______. A.catching B.to be caught C.being caught D.to catch ───────
6.半系动词
半系动词后可用名词、不定式、分词和形容词等作表语,这类词有: 表感观的系动词:look, sound, taste, smell, feel(这些词用形容词作表语), seem, appear 表变化的系动词:become, get, turn,grow,make,come,go,fall,run 表依旧的系动词:remain,keep,stay,continue,stand,rest,lie,hold 可带名词作表语的系动词:
be,become,make,look,sound,fall,prove,remain,turn(该词后接的单数名词 前多不用冠词。如:He turned teacher.) (91高考)These oranges taste____________. A.good B.well ─── C.to be good D.to be well
7.含"被动"意味的动词
有些动词,如 sell,open,close,wash,teach,burn,measure,cut,lock,cost,read,write,tear ,wear,pull, clean,add,cook,let(出租)等,它们的主语是事物,且又是表示 主语的固有特征和状态,与行为方式状语连 用时,要用主动形式表被动意义:
My pen writes smoothly.我的笔好写。
Oil burns easily.油易燃烧。That suit_________over 60 dollars. A.had costed B.costed C.is cost D.cost ────"Is this raincoat yours?""No,mine____________th-ere behind the door." A.is hanging B.has hung ────── C. hangs D. hung
8.具有两种形式的易混动词
中学英语教材中有些不规则动词有两种过去式或两种过去分词形式,使用或 考测时极易弄混。如:
hang,hanged,hanged(绞死) hang,hung,hung(挂起) light,lit,lit(点燃,作谓语) light,lighted,lighted(过去分词作形容词用时,意谓"燃烧着的",作 定语) drink,drank,drunk/drunken(喝,饮;过去分词作形容词同时,意谓"醉 的",drunk多作表语,drunke n多作定语) sink,sank,sunk/sunken(下沉;过去分词sunken作形容词用时,作定语) bear,bore,born(出生) bear,bore,borne(结果;生育) lie(撒谎),lied,lied,lying lie(躺,卧,位于),lay,lain,lying Do you know the boy___________under the big tree? A.lay B.lain C.laying D.lying ──── The woman,who was born in 1940,has borne five children. ── ───
二、从搭配上复习归纳词汇,过习语关
英语词汇的搭配十分活跃,复习时我们要把重点放在某些常用的动词、名词 或介词、副词。我们可按下列 方式进行对比归纳。
1.常用的搭配活跃的名词
常用的搭配较活跃的名词有:time, way, moment, means等。如time的搭配 短语在中学教材中出现有:
in no time(立刻,马上),on time(按时),in time(及时、迟早),at a time(一次),behind the times(落伍),behind time(不及时,晚点),at one time(曾经),for a time(一度),at othe r times(其它时候,平素),at times (有时候),at all times(一直,经常) (93高考)If you keep on,you will succeed_____________.
A.in time B.at on time ───── C.on time D.at the same time Don't all speak at once!___________,please. A.Each at on time B.One by one time C.One for each time D.One at a time ────────
2.常用的搭配活跃的动词
常用的搭配活跃的动词有:
look,take,make,give,get,have,go,do,turn,put,set,come等。复习时我们要 尽量将具有相反意义的介词、副词与同一动词的搭配罗列在一起对比记忆,如 turn一词:
turn on(打开),turn off(关上),turn up(放大音量等;出现),turn down (放小音量等;拒绝) ,turn in(上交),turn ag-ainst(反对),turn out (生产),turn away(避开) (81高考)Would you mind__________your radio a little? A.turn off B.turning off C.to turn down D.turning down ───────
(92高考)Readers can_________quite well without knowing the exact meaning of each word.
A.get over B.get out of ───── C.get away D.get off
3.常用的搭配活跃的介词、副词
搭配活跃的介词、副词有:in,out,up,down,on,off,to,from,for,over,with 等。复习时,我们要从不同动 词、名词等与同一介词、副词搭配进行逐一过关, 如on的搭配有:
①on与动词的搭配 get on(上车/船等),live on(以…为生),feed on(以…为生),take on (接受;雇用),turn on(打开开关/电器等),look on(旁观),spy on(侦 察/窥探),call on(号召;拜访),go on(继续 ),have on(穿戴),depend on(依*),wait on(侍候),carry on(执行),hold on(坚持),insist on (坚持),play tr-icks on(戏弄),fix on(注视),impress on(留下印象) ②on与名词搭配(注意冠词的取舍)
on duty(值班),on business(因公;因事),on fire(燃烧),on show (展览),on time(准时) ,on strike(罢工),on watch(监视,观察),on sale(出售;大减价),on earth(到底,究竟),on journey(旅游),on foot(步行),on purpose(故意),on the way(在 路上),on the contrary(相 反),on one hand(一方面),on the right(在 右边),on the whole(总而言之),on one's own(独自 ),on one's side(支 持,站在某一方),on holiday/leave(度假/请假)
③其它情况:
later on(后来),from now/then on(从现在/那时起),on account of (由于,因为) (93高考)We offered him our congratulations_______his pa-ssing the college entrance exams. A.at B.on C.for D.of ──A new school was___________in the village last year. A.held up B.set up ──── C.sent up D.brought up
三、从对比词/词组的同义、词序或结构等复习归纳词汇,过辨析关
1.动作动词和结果动词
英语中有些动词虽然意义相同,但用法不同,有的表示某个动作,而另一个 则表示该动作所产生的结果, 这类动词常见的有:
look for(寻找),find(找到);look(看),see(看见);listen(听), hear(听到);try(试 图,不说明是否成功),manage(设法,侧重做到);advise (劝告,不说明是否劝成),persuade(劝服, 侧重劝成功)How can you___________if you are not__________? A.listen,hearing   B.hear,listening C.be listening,heard D.be hearing,listened to
2.词序不同、意思就不同
有少量词组颠倒词序后意思和用法就不同了,常见的有: before long(不久以后),long before(很久以前) turn in(上交;就寝),in turn(按次序,轮流) hand in(上交),in hand(在手边) from far(来自远方),far from(离得远;远非) much too(非常,修饰形容词或副词),too much(太多,修饰名词,也可 作名词)
if only(要是…),only if(只有…) all in(精疲力尽),in all(总共) good for(对…有好处),for good(永远))It was__________late to catch a bus after the party,therefore we called a taxi.   A.too very B.much too C.too much D.far
Before long,he moved to London and made London the base for ────── his revolutionar y work.
It was not long before the whole country rose up and drove ────── the Austrians out of their homeland.
3.动词后有无介词,意思不同
因有无介词而词义不同的动词在中学英语教材中较多,常见的如: search(对人、物或场所搜查),search for(搜寻人、物或场所) leave(离开某地),leave for(去某地) reach(到达;拿到),reach for(伸手去拿) prepare(准备),prepare for(为…作准备) enter(进入),enter for(报名参加) run(经营;跑),run for(竞选) stand(站;忍受),stand for(代表) answer(回答),answer for(负责) know(了解,知道),know about(知道关于…) pay(付钱、债给某人),pay for(付钱买某物)
The baby reached for the apple but he couldn't reach it.那婴儿伸手 去拿苹果,但够不到。
The mayor who used to run a small shop will run for the Senate.那 个曾经营过一家小店的市长准备 去竞选参议员。
4.有无-ly,意思和用法都不同
这词在教材中较多。一般来说,在形容词后加了-ly成了副词,但有些形容 词不加-ly时也可作副词,因而 在使用或考测时学生常混淆不清,复习时可按 用法分类记忆:
a.表具体(无-ly)和抽象(有-ly)的区别: wide(宽广),widely(广泛地) deep(深),deeply(深深地) high(高,位置高),highly(高度地) low(位置低),lowly(地位卑微) b.有无-ly,意思不同:
near(近,附近),nearly(几乎) hard(努力),hardly(几乎不) most(大部分),mostly(主要地) like(象…一样),likely(大概,也许) dear(昂贵),dearly(深切地;昂贵地) close(*近地),closely(密切地) late(迟到),lately(最近) bad(坏),badly(恶劣地;严重地) 5.合写与分写时意思不同
这类词在拼法上一样,但合写和分写在用法和意义上却不同,常见的词有:
sometime(某个时候),some time(一段时间) sometimes(有时),some times(几次) everyday(adj."日常的",作定语),every day(每天) anyway(adv.无论怎样),any way(以任何方式) altogether(总共,完全),all together(一道,一起) already(已经),all ready(都已准备好) everyone(每个人,指人,不可接of短语),every one (每个人或物,后 可接of短语) none(没有,可指人或物),no one(没有,专指人)They were all very tired,but_______of them would stop to take a rest. A.any B.some C.none D.neither ─── 6.差了一个字母a,意思大不同
这类词不多,但在练习中极易出错,使用时也常混淆,因而要从用法和意义 上加以辨别。如:
alive(adj."活着的",作表语),live(adj.修饰物,作定语:a live fire) alone(adj.,adv."独自",作形容词时作表语),lone(adj."孤独的; 偏僻的",作定语)
asleep(adj."熟睡的",常作表语),sleep(V.,n.睡着) awake(adj.,v."醒着;叫醒",作形容词时作表语),wake(v.叫醒) alike(adj."相象的",表语形容词),like(v.,prep.,adj.喜欢;象… 一样)
arise(vi.产生;发生;出现),rise(vi.起来;上涨;上升) across(prep.,adv.穿过;横过),cross(v.穿过;横过) await(vt."等候",直接接宾语),wait(vi."等候",不及物动词) aloud(adv."大声地",与read, call, cry等连用,无比较级形式),loud (adv."大声地,响亮地", 常与talk, speak, shout, laugh等词连用) 注意:有a-的形容词常作表语,作定语时则要后置。如: It's difficult for the man awake to fall asleep again.
四、归纳易拼错的常用词,过拼写关 归纳易拼错的常用词如:
quarrel, immediately, camera, umbrella, envelope, develop, popular, republic, public, appreciate, pronunciation等,攻克单词拼写难关。
我们在复习词汇时要有的放矢,全方位、多渠道地去探索它们的内在规律, 根据它们的特点把语音、拼写 、语法、搭配等融为一体,缩小复习的范围、避免词汇复习的枯燥性,从而提高复习兴趣与效果
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