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动词ing形式的用法

2013-05-25 21:05:15
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)Ving形式作定语
  分词短语作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;单个分词作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之前。例如:
  The man standing by the window is our teacher.
  Many frightened people rushed out of the burning building.
  Ving作定语主要表示动作和用途。
  1. 表示动作(主动的、进行的动作)。
  a waiting car = the car that is waiting
  a sleeping child 熟睡的孩子  
  The girl standing there is my sister.
  站在那儿的女孩是我的姐妹。
  [注意]现在分词作定语时,它表示的动作是正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作几乎同时发生,如果两个动作有先有后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而要用定语从句。例如:
  The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window. 老师批评了打破窗户的学生。
  2. 表示用途:
  the waiting room = the room for waiting 候车室
  a working method 工作方法
  He has a reading room. 他有一个书房。
  【比较】
  过去分词作定语:
  及物动词的过去分词表示被动,不及物动词的过去分词表示动作完成。例如:
  That is the book written by Lu Xun.
  那是鲁迅写的书。
  He is a returned student. 他是一个归国的留学生。
  不定式作定语:
  用不定式作定语,其经常所修饰的名词、代词有:
  meeting, reason, time, way, need, right, chance, decision, wish, promise, ability, anxiety, something, anything, nothing, anybody, somebody, thing... 例如:
  We have no time to lose.
  我们没有时间(可以浪费)了。
  That’s the plan to build the factory.
  那就是建那座工厂的计划。
  ()Ving形式作宾语补足语
  1. keep, find, notice, have, feel, hear, see, leave...等动词后常用Ving形式作宾语补足语。
  例如:
  1) The boss kept the workers working the whole night. 那个老板让工人整夜地工作。
  2) We found the old lady lying in bed. 我们发现那老太太躺在床上。
  2. 在感官动词:see, hear, look at, notice, observe, feel, find...等及使役动词:have, make, leave, keep, get...等后既可以用不定式也可以用Ving形式作宾语补足语。不定式(不带to)表示过程或动作完成,Ving形式强调进行或当时情景。例如:
  I saw the lady crossing the street.
  我看见那位妇人在过马路。
  We heard her sing two songs.
  我们听她唱了两首歌。
  ()Ving形式作主语
  Ving形式具有动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词作用,可作主语。
  Seeing is believing.眼见为实。
  It is no use arguing with him.和他争论没有用。
  Ving形式作主语常用于下列句型:
  【句型1
  It is + 名词(或形容词) + 动名词
       It is + no use/no good /a waste of time/so nice+ crying there.doing that.
  例如:
  1) It’s a waste of time waiting here. 在这里等是浪费时间。
  2) It’s so nice talking to you. 很高兴和你谈话。
  【句型2】 
  There is no + 动名词     例如:
  There is no stopping of him. 无法阻拦他。
  There was no telling of the difference. 无法加以区别。
  【注意】
   Ving形式和不定式都可以作主语,Ving形式作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。例如:
  Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火)
  To play with fire will be dangerous.(指一具体动作)
  但在It is no use / good, not any use / good, useless 等后必须用Ving形式。
   Ving形式作主语,谓语动词用单数。如:
  Forgetting the past means betrayal. 忘记过去就意味着背叛。
  (四)Ving形式作表语
  Ving形式具有形容词和名词的性质,在句中可作表语。
  作表语用的Ving形式有两种:一种用作名词,一种用作形容词。用作名词时,说明主语的内容,就此提问时,用what ;用作形容词时,说明主语的特征,用how进行提问。例如:
  Her favourite job is teaching English.→ What is her favourite job?
  It is interesting to read such a story. → How is it to read such a story?  
  ()Ving形式作宾语
  Ving形式具有动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词作用,可作宾语。
  He is fond of playing football. I like swimming.
  他很喜欢足球,我喜欢游泳。
  【注意】
  admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, include, keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk, suggest, can’t help, can’t stand等动词后可以用Ving形式作宾语,但不能用不定式。
  forget, go on, like, mean, regret, remember, stop, try等动词可带Ving形式或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别。试比较:
  I remember doing the exercise. 我记得做过练习。
  I must remember to do it. 我必须记着做这事。
  I tried not to go there. 我设法不去那里。
  I tried doing it again. 我试着又干了一次。
  Stop speaking.  不要讲话。
  He stopped to talk. 他停下来讲话。
  I mean to come early today. 我打算今天来早些。
  Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时。
  allow, advise, forbid, permit 等动词后直接跟动词作宾语时,要用Ving形式,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,然后在跟动词作宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式。例如:
  We don’t allow smoking here.
  We don’t allow students to smoke.
  动词need, require, want需要解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,必须用Ving形式,或不定式的被动式,这时,Ving形式的主动形式表示被动意义。例如:
  The window needs (requires, wants) cleaning (to be cleaned).
  在短语devote to, look forward to, stick to, be used to, object to, thank you for, excuse me for, be (kept) busy, be worth, have difficulty / trouble / problem(in), have a good / wonderful / hard time(in), feel  like, get down to等后的动词也必须用Ving形式。例如:
  I look forward to hearing from you soon.
  love, hate, prefer等动词后用Ving形式或不定式无大的区别。但说话人有所指的时候,通常用不定式。
  start, begin, continue在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。
  should (would) like / love等后须用不定式。
  【知识拓展】
  Ving形式的时态和语态
  1. Ving形式的时态
  Ving形式的时态分一般式和完成式两种,如果Ving形式的动作没有明确地表示出时间是与谓语动词同时发生或在谓语动词以前发生,用Ving形式的一般式。例如:
  His coming will be of great help to us.
  如果Ving形式的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常用Ving形式的完成时态。例如:
  I’m sorry for not having kept my promise.
  2. Ving形式的语态
  主语是这个Ving形式所表示的动作的对象时,Ving形式用被动语态。被动语态由“being + 过去分词“having been + 过去分词构成,后一种一般避免使用。例如:
  He likes being helped.
  He was afraid of being left at home.
  to be worth doing 句型中,Ving形式doing表示的是被动意义。例如:
The book is worth reading.
 
动词的-ing形式是英语中非谓语动词的一种,它在句中可作主语宾语表语定语状语及补足语由于这种形式是由动词变化而来的,因此它具有动词的一些特征,即可带自己的宾语和状语,从而构成动词
  -ing短语它有时态和语态的变化,也有否定形式及其复合结构形式
  现以动词do为例,其变化形式如下:
  
  复合结构形式在句中主要作主语和宾语作宾语时可用代词宾格或名词普通格加上动词的-ing形式
  一 动词-ing形式作主语(通常指一个抽象动作),它可直接置于主语位置,也可以用it作形式主语,而把作真正主语的动词-ing形式放在句子的后部例如:
  1. Knowing table manners will help you make a good impression.
  2. Having a cellphone also makes us feel safer, since we can call for help in case of an emergency.
  3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
  4. His coming made us very happy. (复合结构作主语)
  二 动词-ing形式作宾语例如:
  1. Having good table manners means knowing how to use knives and forks, when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table.
  2. Do you prefer living in the zoo or living in the jungle?
  3. I really can’t understand you treating her like that.
  [注意] 1. 下列动词后面通常要用动词-ing形式作宾语
  enjoy, finish, stop, mind, suggest, practise, excuse(原谅),appreciate, keep, risk(冒险), consider, admit, miss(错过), imagine, avoid(避免), delay(推迟) resist, cannot help
  2. need, want, require, be worth 等动词(短语)后面常用动词
  -ing的主动形式表示被动意义例如:
  The flowers want watering.
  三 动词-ing形式作表语(常指主语的内容状态或性质等)例如:
  My interests are reading novels, playing football and singing songs.
  The film was so moving that we saw it twice.
  四 动词-ing形式作定语
  单个的动词-ing形式作定语时,常置于所修饰的名词前面;动词
  -ing短语作定语时则常置于被修饰的词后面例如:
  1. English is the working language of most international organizations, international trade and tourism.
  2. The building being built now will be our library.
  五 动词-ing形式作状语
  动词-ing形式作状语时,可以表示时间原因伴随状况条件结果等例如:
  1. Hearing the good news, he jumped with great joy. (时间)
  2. Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note. (原因)
  3. The next moment the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden. (伴随状况)
  4. In Sydney the Chinese team got 28 gold medals, ranking third of all the competing countries. (结果)
  注意: 1. 动词-ing形式(短语)作状语时的几个特性
   时间性如果动词-ing形式所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,则用一般式;如果动词-ing形式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前则使用完成式
   语态性应考虑动词-ing形式与句子主语之间的关系是主谓关系还是动宾关系,据此来确定语态
   人称的一致性动词-ing形式的逻辑主语应和句子的主语一致
  2. 动词-ing形式前可以加when, while, though等从属连词,这可以视为状语从句的省略例如:
  When drinking to someone’s health, you raise your glasses, but the glasses should not be touched.
  While visiting the city, they received a warm welcome.
动词-ing形式作补足语例如:
  1. He found the wall being painted.
  2. With so many people communicating in English every day, it will become more and more important to have a good knowledge of English.
  通常,宾语补足语与宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系,动词-ing形式作宾语补足语往往表示其动作在延续或进行中,用动词-ing作宾语补足语的常见的动词有: have, get, send, leave等使役动词; see, hear, watch, observe, notice, catch, find, listen to,look at等感官动词当这些动词用于被动语态时,作宾语补足语的动词-ing形式就相应变成了主语补足语
  
  巩固性练习:
  1. ______ his exercise book, he was scolded(批评) by the teacher.
  A. Not having handed in B. Having not handed in
  C. Not handing in D. Handing not in
  2. It was______to see all the students______silently in the classroom.
  A. surprising; sitting B. surprised; seating
  C. surprising; seat D. surprised; sitting
  
  3. China became the 143rd member of the WTO on Decomber 11,2001,thus______its 15-year wish to join the global trade body.
  A. realized B. to realize
  C. having realized D. realizing
  4. While watching television,______ .
  A. the doorbell rang B. the doorbell rings
  C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings
  5. “You can’t catch me!” John shouted,______away.
  A. run B. running C. to run D. ran
  6. The picture______on the wall is painted by my nephew.
  A. having hung B. hanging
  C. hangs D. being hung
  7.______from heart trouble for years, Professor White has to take some medicine with him whenever he goes.
  A. Suffered B. Suffering
  C. Having suffered D. Being suffered
  8. The______boy was last seen______near the East Lake.
  A. missing; playing B. missing; play
  C. missed; played D. missed; to play
  9. Ann never dreams of______for her to be sent abroad very soon.
  A. being a chance B. there being a chance
  C. that she will have a chance D. there to be a chance
  10. While shopping, people sometimes can’t help______into buying something they don’t really need.
  A. to persuade B. persuading
  C. being persuaded D. be persuaded
  11. —Henry doesn’t seem to be what he was.
  —No.______so much in the war has made him more thoughtful.
  A. Seen B. His seeing
  C. Having seen D. To have seen
  12. —Were you busy last weekend?
  —Very. Rather than______time playing cards as usual, I devoted every effort to______an advertisement.
  A. wasting; making B. waste; make
  C. to waste; make D. a waste of; making
答案与解析:
1. A 动词-ing形式的否定式是在其前加not hand in这一动作发生在scold之前,故空白处应填其完成式Not having handed in
2. A surprising意为令人惊讶的”, studentssitting之间是主谓关系,故第一空填surprising, 第二空填sitting
3. D realizing在句中作结果状语,本句意为:“中国于20011211成为世贸组织的第143个成员国,实现了她15年来加入全球性贸易组织的梦想”,故空白处应填realizing
  4. C While watching telivision作时间状语, watching 的逻辑主语即是句子的主语we, ring为不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语,故答案为C
  5. B 空白处填running, away作伴随状语,故答案为B
  6. B hanging on the wallpicture的定语,表示一种状态,故答案为B
  7. C 根据时间状语for years可判断此处应用动词-ing的完成式作状语,表示原因,故答案为C
  8. A missingboy的定语,两者之间是主动关系 was seen playing意为被看见正在玩”,故答案应为A
  9. B 在介词of后应接动词-ing短语, there beingthere be结构的-ing形式,故答案为B
  10. C can’t help意为禁不住”,其后应接动词的-ing形式此处意为被说服买并不真正需要的东西”,应用被动式,故答案为C
  11. B His seeing so much ... 为动词-ing短语作句子的主语, Hisseeing的逻辑主语,故答案为B
  12. A devote oneself to doing sth rather than结构的前后应为平行关系,因此应连接两个动词-ing形式,故答案为A
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